Authorities said the pilot of the corporate jet went "too long" on the landing and the plane hit an "arrester bed," which crumbles under the weight of the aircraft.
There were no injuries reported.
Jennifer Friedberg, a spokeswoman for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which operates the airport, said seven passengers and two pilots were aboard the G-4 Gulfstream.
The incident occurred at about 1:45 p.m. Friday.
The arrester beds installed at Teterboro are made of specially designed aerated cement blocks. They're designed to fall apart under the weight of a plane, stopping its momentum.
"They are crushable," said Port Authority Manager Pam Phillips, who helped design the life-saving technology. "It's like if you're in your car and you run off the road near the beach -- sand will slow you down."
The barriers were ordered after two planes skidded off runways at Teterboro in 2005. In one of the accidents, a corporate jet carrying 11 people failed to take off and crossed six lanes of Route 46, striking cars and plowing into a warehouse. Twenty people were injured.
Teterboro handles primarily smaller private and corporate jets and is among the busiest in the country for that class of airport.