At least eight people have been killed by the fires in the eastern states of New South Wales and Victoria since Monday, including volunteer firefighters, officials have said. Another 18 people are still missing.
The emergency period begins on Friday and marks the third time such a declaration was made since the fires began in November.
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Gladys Berejiklia, the state governor, told a press conference: "We don’t take these decisions lightly but we also want to make sure we’re taking every single precaution to be prepared for what could be a horrible day on Saturday."