The COVID Vaccine Doesn't Cause Infertility, But the Disease Might

The symptoms of COVID-19 could affect both male and female fertility in different ways

A hand holds a vaccine

Worries that the COVID-19 vaccine could cause infertility are among the reasons people give for avoiding vaccination. While there’s no evidence any of the COVID vaccines cause problems with fertility, becoming severely ill from the disease has the potential to do so, reproduction experts say, making vaccination all the more important. 

Researchers have been studying the effects of COVID on the human reproductive system since the beginning of the pandemic. While there’s no evidence that Covid can be sexually transmitted, research suggests that the cells in the reproductive system are feasible targets for the virus, because they carry some of the receptors the coronavirus must bind to in order to enter cells. 

The idea that a virus could cause infertility is not unprecedented. “We do have historic evidence that there are certain viruses that are more likely to impact either male or female fertility,” said Dr. Jennifer Kawwass, a reproductive endocrinologist and associate professor at the Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta.

For example, human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV infections have all been linked to decreased fertility. It’s unclear, however, if a respiratory virus, like the coronavirus, could have the same effect. But the fact that male and female reproductive organs have the receptors the COVID virus targets means it’s certainly plausible that the virus could cause fertility issues, she said. 

Moreover, the symptoms of COVID — primarily fever higher than 102 degrees Fahrenheit for at least three days — are known to cause fertility issues, especially in men.

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Months after the coronavirus vaccines were administered, researchers are looking into how the vaccine affected menstrual cycles. While social media posts and news articles were written with anecdotes from people who experienced irregular periods after receiving the shot, no medical journal had done a study to investigate cause and effect.
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